The large black oval-shield shaped areas on the forewings are sex brands/stigmas from where the common name of this skipper is derived.
Adult imbibing nutrients from a bird dropping, first (on left) by wetting the dropping with liquid excreted from its rear end, and then by sucking up the same containing dissolved nutrients through its proboscis (on right).
Photography by Bryan Haywood
Newly laid eggs are green coloured.
Fertile eggs a couple of days after being laid.
Fertile eggs a couple of days after being laid are still green coloured but have acquired an irregular purplish-brown coloured lateral band.
Fertile eggs a week after being laid have lost the green colour and turned yellow.
Larva in fully developed egg on left is in the first stages of cutting out the top of the egg shell.
Larva in egg on right has completely breached the top of the egg shell, but still has to double the size of the opening before it can escape from the egg shell.
Larva after emerging from egg and having had its first meal on the empty egg shell (chorion).
First instar larvae (2 mm) newly emerged from egg.
Closeup of newly constructed tip-folded leaf shelter,
containing a first instar larva.
Shelter was made on a kikuyu grass leaf.
Typical multi-leaved shelter
constructed by larger larvae,
in this example by an early
fourth instar larva on kikuyu.
Final fifth instar larva (25 mm) near quiescent stage.
The tiny white dots on the skin are secondary setae.
Head of fifth instar larva of living larva.
Head of fifth instar larva of the shed larval skin after pupation.
Rolled leaf and bark debris within host grass used as shelters by fourth to fifth instar larvae.
The shelters are lined with silk and the ends anchored with silk to the grass stems or other debris.
Posterior end (anal plate) of fifth instar larva showing the numerous white secondary setae on the skin that impart a scabrous appearance to the larva.
Closeup of wine-glass shaped secondary setae in the photo, also modified sensory (tactile) setae in lower part of photo.
Ultra-closeup of wine-glass shaped secondary setae on anal plate in the photo.
Closeup of spiracle in top photo, a tiny opening point on the side of most segments of the larva that allows respiration. When the larva breathes the central part of the spiracle opens, expelling carbon dioxide and then allowing fresh oxygen into the tracheal system.
Anterior end (head, prothoracic plate or shield and thoracic segments) of fifth instar larva showing the numerous secondary setae .
Modified forward directed secondary setae on the above head of the fifth instar larva.
Ultra-closeup of wine-glass shaped secondary setae on the prothoracic plate in the photo.
Closeup of secondary setae and simple single corneal eyes (stemmata) on lower side of head on above fifth instar larva. Two eyes are visible; there are normally about six present situated in a ring.
All photography by R. Grund unless stated otherwise.