First instar larva immediately after emerging from egg
The larva at the bottom has just completed a moult and the head is still yellow, which soon turns black.
Final instar larva extending its osmeterium (arrowed),
which is located just behind its head.
Mature larva showing from where the osmeterium originates (arrowed).
Larva in the process of girdling, one day before pupating.
Left photo shows it putting the finishing touches to the silk girdle.
Middle photo shows it manoeuvring the girdle above its head, and with a deft nod and a shrug the girdle is soon around its waist (right photo). The girdle anchor points are clearly visible on the twig.
Larva in process of pupating.
Photo 1 to left shows the prepupa one day before pupation.
Photo 2 at the start of pupation (0 minutes).
Photo 3 one minute later showing the outer larval skin (almost transparent) splitting from the head down along the back (dorsal surface) visible as the yellow V.
Photo 4 after 3 minutes shows the skin about two thirds the way down on the backside with the larva pulsating all the time forcing the skin to its posterior end (bottom of photo).
Photo 5 after 5 minutes showing the skin has been
completely forced down to the bottom.
Photo 6 after 8 minutes shows the (now) pupa having discarded the outer larval skin and attached itself to the white silken pad on the twig by its cremaster and settled comfortably into its girdle.
Photo 7 after 18 minutes and Photo 8 after 30 minutes show the pupa in the process of contracting its abdomen and elongating its wings.
Photo 9 after 42 minutes show the pupa nearly completely
formed but still soft and green coloured.
Photo 10, 11 & 12 two days later showing the pupa fully formed and hardened, and in this case a brown coloured form.
Green coloured form of pupa
All photography by R. Grund unless stated otherwise.