SOUTH AUSTRALIAN BUTTERFLIES

Hesperilla donnysa donnysa Hewitson  (Donnysa Sedge-skipper)
Hesperilla donnysa donnysa form delos Waterhouse  (Donnysa Sedge-skipper)
Hesperilla donnysa donnysa form flavescens Waterhouse  (Yellowish Sedge-skipper)

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Opened pupa shelter of dark form skipper.
The pupa is a black coloured form typical for the dark form skipper.
The pupa would normally be pointing upwards

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Closeup of above pupa

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Another black coloured pupa of the dark form skipper

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Pale pupa colour forms of form flavescens from coastal Adelaide

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Operculum (anterior end of pupa) of dark form skipper.
The hardened and thickened processes probably help prevent small predators
from attacking the pupa through the open entrance of the shelter

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Dorsal view of operculum

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Detail of cremaster (posterior end of pupa).  Dorsal side on left, ventral side on right.
The cremaster is strengthened by the two longitudinal dorso-lateral ridges

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Ventral side of cremaster in colour

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Closeup of bristles on the cremaster, which are flattened for strength and hooked at the ends
so that the pupa can anchor itself to the silk lined shelter (in the same manner as velcro)

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Posteriorly directed bristles on the posterior parts of the pupa abdomen that help position
the pupa and prevent it from sliding down inside the shelter.
The hairs are strengthened by the half-conical bases which stop the bristles from bending over.
(The anterior side of the bases is to the left)

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Parasitoid wasps that have emerged from a pupa of form flavescens

Photography by R. Grund