Dispar compacta (Butler)  (Barred Grass-skipper)

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First instar larva (2mm) just emerged from egg First instar larva after feeding on green grass

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Second instar larva (3mm) Third instar larva (5mm)

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Newly constructed tip-folded leaf shelter on weeping rice-grass,
typical of first to third instar stage larvae

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A bevy of tip-folded larvae shelters on a tussock of weeping rice-grass

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Tip-folded leaf shelter hanging by the midrib vein of the eaten grass leaf on weeping rice-grass

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Tip-folded leaf shelter constructed on kikuyu by an early fourth instar (10mm) larva.

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Fourth instar larva (12mm)

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Early fifth instar larva (16mm)

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Late fifth instar larva (20mm) at quiescent stage

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Head of fifth instar larva

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Rolled leaf and bark debris within host grass used as shelters by fourth to fifth instar larvae.
The shelters are lined with silk and the ends anchored with silk to the grass stems.

Photography by R. Grund